Off-the-job embeddedness: A reconceptualization and agenda for future research

Daniel C. Feldman, Thomas W.H. Ng, Ryan M. Vogel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

43 Scopus citations


We propose that off-the-job embeddedness (OTJE) be reconceptualized as a separate and distinct, albeit related, construct from job embeddedness. We conceptualize OTJE as the totality of outside-work forces which keep an individual bound to his/her current geographical area and argue that this construct includes important factors which do not fall under the umbrella of "community embeddedness." Moreover, we propose that these outside-work forces may embed individuals in their jobs either directly or indirectly (through the perceived or expressed preferences of spouses, children, and extended family). This paper identifies the key components of OJTE, addresses the measurement of OTJE, explains the relationships between job embeddedness and OTJE (and their respective components), highlights how OTJE can either amplify or counteract the effects of job embeddedness, and illustrates the direct and indirect effects of OTJE on both work-related and personal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationResearch in Personnel and Human Resources Management
EditorsJoseph Martocchio, Aparna Joshi, Hui Liao
Number of pages43
StatePublished - 2012

Publication series

NameResearch in Personnel and Human Resources Management
ISSN (Print)0742-7301

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Off-the-job embeddedness: A reconceptualization and agenda for future research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this