On the role of surface fluxes and WISHE in tropical cyclone intensification

Fuqing Zhang, Kerry Emanuel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The authors show that the feedback between surface wind and surface enthalpy flux is an important influence on tropical cyclone evolution, even though, as with at least some classical instability mechanisms, such a feedback is not strictly necessary. When the wind speed is artificially capped in idealized numerical experiments, storm development is slowed and storms achieve a smaller final intensity. When it is capped in simulations of an actual storm (Hurricane Edouard of 2014), the quality of the simulations is strongly compromised; for example, little development occurs when the wind speed is capped at 5 ms-1, in contrast to the category-3 hurricane shown by observations and produced by the control experiment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2011-2019
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


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