Online Learning Self-Efficacy in Students With and Without Online Learning Experience

Whitney Alicia Zimmerman, Jonna M. Kulikowich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


A need was identified for an instrument to measure online learning self-efficacy, which encompassed the wide variety of tasks required of successful online students. The Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (OLSES) was designed to include tasks required of students enrolled in paced online courses at one university. In the present study, the twenty-two-item scale was completed by 338 postsecondary students with and without online learning experience. Separate principal components analyses were performed using data collected from participants who had and had not completed an online course. The results were similar for the two groups. A three-subscale structure was selected for use with all individuals. The three subscales represent items concerning (1) learning in the online environment, (2) time management, and (3) technology use. The reliability and validity of scores on the OLSES was explored through group comparisons and correlations. Suggestions for the use of the instrument with other populations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-191
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Distance Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


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