Opioid and stimulant attributed treatment admissions and fatal overdoses: Using national surveillance data to examine the intersection of race, sex, and polysubstance use, 1992–2020

A. A. Jones, R. D. Shearer, J. E. Segel, A. Santos-Lozada, S. Strong-Jones, N. Vest, D. Teixeira da Silva, U. G. Khatri, T. N.A. Winkelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: We use national surveillance data to evaluate race/ethnicity by sex/gender differences and trends in substance use treatment admissions and overdose deaths involving opioid and stimulant use. Methods: We used data (1992–2019) from the Treatment Episode Dataset-Admissions to identify treatment admissions and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (1999–2020) to identify overdose deaths. We assessed treatment admissions and related drug overdose deaths per 100,000 adults by sex and race/ethnicity for opioid and stimulant groups: cocaine, opioid, methamphetamines, cocaine and opioid use, cocaine and methamphetamines, and opioid and methamphetamines. Results: We found significant variations in treatment admissions and deaths by race/ethnicity and sex/gender. Cocaine-related treatment admissions and deaths were most prevalent among Non-Hispanic Black individuals over the study years, yet lower rates were evident among individuals from other racial/ethnic groups. Notably, Non-Hispanic Black men experienced larger increases in cocaine-only admissions than men of other racial/ethnic groups between 1992 and 2019. Men had higher opioid and stimulant treatment admissions and overdose deaths than women. We observed skyrocketing methamphetamine deaths among American Indian/Native Alaskan men and women from 1992 to 2019. Discussion: Steep increases in overdose deaths fueled by methamphetamines among Non-Hispanic Native Americans and cocaine among Non-Hispanic Black individuals suggest a need for more effective interventions to curb stimulant use. Variations by race/ethnicity and sex/gender also suggest interventions should be developed through an intersectionality lens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109946
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
StatePublished - Aug 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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