Osteosarcomas (OSAs) can be difficult to distinguish histologically from tumors with significantly different biologic potentials and treatment protocols. The correct diagnosis of OSA relies on identification of malignant osteoblasts that are capable of producing neoplastic bone. To determine the use of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of OSA, 106 tumors from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the University of Vermont were immunostained with monoclonal antiosteocalcin (OC) and antiosteonectin (ON) antibodies. They included 42 OSAs, 25 non-bone-forming sarcomas, 24 other malignant tumors including lymphomas, carcinomas, and melanomas, and 15 benign bone tumors. Cytoplasmic staining with OC showed 70% sensitivity and 100% specificity, while staining with ON showed 90% sensitivity and 54% specificity for bone-forming tumors, consistently staining cell types other than osteoblasts. Of the OSAs, 83% demonstrated matrix staining with one or both antibodies, whereas dense collagen was negative for both antibodies in all tumors. We conclude that tumor cell cytoplasmic staining with monoclonal OC may be helpful in distinguishing OSAs from other malignancies, and staining of extracellular matrix for OC and ON antibodies concurrently may help distinguish bone matrix from dense collagen.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine