This investigation seeks to confirm several key factors in computer-based versus paper-based assessment. Based on earlier research, the factors considered here include content familiarity, computer familiarity, competitiveness, and gender. Following classroom instruction, freshman business under-graduates (N = 105) were randomly assigned to either a computer-based or identical paper-based test. ANOVA of test data showed that the computer-based test group outperformed the paper-based test group. Gender, competitiveness, and computer familiarity were NOT related to this performance difference, though content familiarity was. Higher-attaining students benefited most from computer-based assessment relative to higher-attaining students under paper-based testing. With the current increase in computer-based assessment, instructors and institutions must be aware of and plan for possible test mode effects.
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