Pathophysiology of Chronic Liver Disease

Anjan Trikha, Bikash Ranjan Ray

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The liver being the largest solid organ in the human body is affected by many different pathogenic agents and processes. Increasing incidence of liver disease is primarily driven by lifestyle factors (alcohol, obesity) and infection of the liver parenchyma. Liver diseases can be manifested in a number of ways, which may be acute or chronic, focal or diffuse, mild or severe. Acute liver disease is a self-limiting disease in which symptoms do not persist beyond 6 months. Most cases are due to episodes of hepatocyte inflammation or damage, which resolve without causing any further complications. Mostly the manifestation of acute liver disease (e.g., viral hepatitis) is so mild that they never come to medical attention. However the entire liver may be affected in few cases leading to fulminant liver failure, which is a life-threatening condition. In chronic liver disease the symptoms persist for more than 6 months. It occurs because of permanent structural damage to the liver architecture as a result of continued inflammation of the hepatocytes after the primary insult. Cirrhosis is the ultimate consequence of progressive liver injury. Cirrhosis develops in a subset of cases of chronic liver disease and may be a consequence of repeated episodes of acute liver injury. Cirrhosis is manifested as a grossly impaired liver function due to decrease amount of functional liver tissue. Change in liver architecture leads to change in the physics of blood flow in and around the liver. Elevation in portal vein pressure diverts blood away from the liver causing portosystemic shunting, which has a profound effect on functioning of various organ systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPeri-operative Anesthetic Management in Liver Transplantation
PublisherSpringer Nature
Pages51-62
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9789811960451
ISBN (Print)9789811960444
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine

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