Pennsylvania Workplace Safety: Employee Perceptions of Active Shooter Preparedness

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This study investigated the role of workplace preparedness actions in employee perceptions of workplace risk, workplace preparedness, and personal self-efficacy in an active shooter event. Data were drawn from an online, state representative survey of 668 Pennsylvania residents in 2019. Nearly 40% of employees reported their workplaces had not taken any preparedness actions. Having a workplace take a greater number of preparedness actions was associated with increased self-efficacy and increased perceptions of workplace preparedness, but also an increase in perceived risk. Males and gun owners perceived lower levels of workplace risk and reported substantially higher self-efficacy. However, associations between workplace efforts and self-efficacy differed from those for perceived workplace preparedness. Associations with firearm policy and the presence of security staff also differed for the two outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)920-939
Number of pages20
JournalViolence and victims
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health(social science)
  • Law


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