Performance of connectors to anchor red maple glulam deck panels to steel I-beams in bridges

J. D. Kimmel, J. J. Janowiak, H. B. Manbeck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Fastener performance evaluation was conducted on three types of connector systems used to fasten 5-1/8-inch red maple glued-laminated (glulam) materials to 1-inch-thick steel plates: twin 3/4-inch-diameter hook bolts, bolted offset shoes, and lagged offset shoes. Collectively, experimental evaluation included 255 (225 uncycled and 30 cycled) test assemblies that connected red maple glulam to steel plates to better characterize resistance property values of the different connector systems. The hook bolt connector system consistently yielded higher P 5% and k 1 performance values, followed by the bolted offset shoe systems, then the lagged offset shoe assemblies (tested under single static loading). Differences in load-resistance performance for the bolted and lagged offset shoe systems were less pronounced compared to average hook bolt values. In most cases, average offset yield load (P 5%) and stiffness values (k 1) were observed to decrease after cyclic displacement exposure when compared to test assemblies exposed only to single static loading. All three types of connector systems appear favorable for glulam timber deck-to-steel I-beam fasteners. However, the lagged shoe type connection may be the more advantageous system with far less glulam processing requirements and greater overall simplicity for potential bridge glulam deck-to-steel girder applications. Design values have been estimated and are presented for the different bridge deck-to-girder joint mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalForest Products Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • General Materials Science
  • Plant Science


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