Periodic Arrays of Phosphorene Nanopores as Antidot Lattices with Tunable Properties

Andrew Cupo, Paul Masih Das, Chen Chi Chien, Gopinath Danda, Neerav Kharche, Damien Tristant, Marija Drndić, Vincent Meunier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

A tunable band gap in phosphorene extends its applicability in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we propose to tune the band gap in phosphorene by patterning antidot lattices, which are periodic arrays of holes or nanopores etched in the material, and by exploiting quantum confinement in the corresponding nanoconstrictions. We fabricated antidot lattices with radii down to 13 nm in few-layer black phosphorus flakes protected by an oxide layer and observed suppression of the in-plane phonon modes relative to the unmodified material via Raman spectroscopy. In contrast to graphene antidots, the Raman peak positions in few-layer BP antidots are unchanged, in agreement with predicted power spectra. We also use DFT calculations to predict the electronic properties of phosphorene antidot lattices and observe a band gap scaling consistent with quantum confinement effects. Deviations are attributed primarily to self-passivating edge morphologies, where each phosphorus atom has the same number of bonds per atom as the pristine material so that no dopants can saturate dangling bonds. Quantum confinement is stronger for the zigzag edge nanoconstrictions between the holes as compared to those with armchair edges, resulting in a roughly bimodal band gap distribution. Interestingly, in two of the antidot structures an unreported self-passivating reconstruction of the zigzag edge endows the systems with a metallic component. The experimental demonstration of antidots and the theoretical results provide motivation to further scale down nanofabrication of antidots in the few-nanometer size regime, where quantum confinement is particularly important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7494-7507
Number of pages14
JournalACS nano
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 25 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy

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