Tourette’s syndrome is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are chronic (duration of >1 year) (Kurlan N Engl J Med. 363:2332; Jankovic and Kurlan Mov Disord. 26:1149; Diagnostic and statistical manual of psychiatry. 4th ed.). Tics are commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive symptoms and disturbances of attention. In many children with Tourette’s syndrome, tics are mild and not disabling, and education about the condition with supportive counseling is sufficient. However, tics can be disabling by causing social embarrassment, school bullying, isolation, and sometimes conflict. Some tics are painful, and some can be self-injurious. When tics are disabling, tic-suppressing therapy is indicated which can be behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. Treatment of associated ADHD and OCD symptoms is also warranted when they are disabling.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Developmental and Educational Psychology