Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, which is critically important in health and disease, can be measured in vivo and noninvasively in humans via phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS). However, the approach has not been widely adopted in translational and clinical research, with variations in methodology and limited guidance from the literature. Increased optimization, standardization, and dissemination of methods for in vivo 31PMRS would facilitate the development of targeted therapies to improve OXPHOS capacity and could ultimately favorably impact cardiovascular health. 31PMRS produces a noninvasive, in vivo measure of OXPHOS capacity in human skeletal muscle, as opposed to alternative measures obtained from explanted and potentially altered mitochondria via muscle biopsy. It relies upon only modest additional instrumentation beyond what is already in place on magnetic resonance scanners available for clinical and translational research at most institutions. In this work, we outline a method to measure in vivo skeletal muscle OXPHOS. The technique is demonstrated using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MR scanner equipped with the suitable hardware and software for 31PMRS, and we explain a simple and robust protocol for in-magnet resistive exercise to rapidly fatigue the quadriceps muscle. Reproducibility and feasibility are demonstrated in volunteers as well as subjects over a wide range of functional capacities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Neuroscience
- General Chemical Engineering
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- General Immunology and Microbiology