Photoacoustic imaging of human vasculature using LED versus laser illumination: A comparison study on tissue phantoms and in vivo humans

Sumit Agrawal, Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Kerrick Johnstonbaugh, David C. Han, Colette R. Pameijer, Sri Rajasekhar Kothapalli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Vascular diseases are becoming an epidemic with an increasing aging population and increases in obesity and type II diabetes. Point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and monitoring of vascular diseases is an unmet medical need. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides label-free multiparametric information of deep vasculature based on strong absorption of light photons by hemoglobin molecules. However, conventional PAI systems use bulky nanosecond lasers which hinders POC applications. Recently, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have emerged as cost-effective and portable optical sources for the PAI of living subjects. However, state-of-art LED arrays carry significantly lower optical energy (<0.5 mJ/pulse) and high pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (4 KHz) compared to the high-power laser sources (100 mJ/pulse) with low PRFs of 10 Hz. Given these tradeoffs between portability, cost, optical energy and frame rate, this work systematically studies the deep tissue PAI performance of LED and laser illuminations to help select a suitable source for a given biomedical application. To draw a fair comparison, we developed a fiberoptic array that delivers laser illumination similar to the LED array and uses the same ultrasound transducer and data acqui-sition platform for PAI with these two illuminations. Several controlled studies on tissue phantoms demonstrated that portable LED arrays with high frame averaging show higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of up to 30 mm depth, and the high-energy laser source was found to be more effective for imaging depths greater than 30 mm at similar frame rates. Label-free in vivo imaging of human hand vasculature studies further confirmed that the vascular contrast from LED-PAI is similar to laser-PAI for up to 2 cm depths. Therefore, LED-PAI systems have strong potential to be a mobile health care technology for diagnosing vascular diseases such as peripheral arterial disease and stroke in POC and resource poor settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number424
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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