Photograph Presentation Order and Range Effects in Visual-Based Outdoor Recreation Research

Adam W. Gibson, Peter Newman, Steve Lawson, Kurt Fristrup, Jacob A. Benfield, Paul A. Bell, Gretchen A. Nurse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Visual-based research methods are commonly used to provide an empirical basis for formulating evaluative standards related to recreation use levels. Visual research methods applied in this context are subject to several potential measurement biases. This article examines two such potential biases in visual-based recreation research methods: order effect bias and range effect bias. In a lab setting, respondents evaluated recreation photographs from Rocky Mountain National Park regarding the acceptability of people at one time (PAOT). Results indicated photo presentation order and the PAOT range depicted both had an effect on photograph acceptability ratings. Potential methodological revisions to the visual-based method are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-205
Number of pages23
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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