Photon versus proton whole ventricular radiotherapy for non-germinomatous germ cell tumors: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

David Y. Mak, Zain Siddiqui, Zhihui Amy Liu, Hitesh Dama, Shannon M. MacDonald, Shengjie Wu, Erin S. Murphy, Matthew D. Hall, Victor Malkov, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Sameera Ahmed, Girish Dhall, Derek S. Tsang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine if proton therapy reduces doses to cranial organs at risk (OARs) as compared to photon therapy in children with non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) receiving whole ventricular radiotherapy (WVRT). Methods and materials: Dosimetric data for patients with NGGCT prospectively enrolled in stratum 1 of the Children's Oncology Group study ACNS1123 who received 30.6 Gy WVRT were compared. Target segmentation was standardized using a contouring atlas. Doses to cranial OARs were compared between proton and photon treatments. Clinically relevant dose-volume parameters that were analyzed included mean dose and dose to 40% of the OAR volume (D40). Results: Mean and D40 doses to the supratentorial brain, cerebellum, and bilateral temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes were statistically significantly lower amongst proton-treated patients, as compared to photon-treated patients. In a subgroup analysis of patients uniformly treated with a 3-mm planning target volume, patients who received proton therapy continued to have statistically significantly lower doses to brain OARs. Conclusions: Children treated with proton therapy for WVRT had lower doses to normal brain structures, when compared to those treated with photon therapy. Proton therapy should be considered for patients receiving WVRT for NGGCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere29697
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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