Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis

Sulin Zhang, Huajian Gao, Gang Bao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

826 Scopus citations


This review article focuses on the physiochemical mechanisms underlying nanoparticle uptake into cells. When nanoparticles are in close vicinity to a cell, the interactions between the nanoparticles and the cell membrane generate forces from different origins. This leads to the membrane wrapping of the nanoparticles followed by cellular uptake. This article discusses how the kinetics, energetics, and forces are related to these interactions and dependent on the size, shape, and stiffness of nanoparticles, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane, as well as the local environment of the cells. The discussed fundamental principles of the physiochemical causes for nanoparticle-cell interaction may guide new studies of nanoparticle endocytosis and lead to better strategies to design nanoparticle-based approaches for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8655-8671
Number of pages17
JournalACS nano
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 22 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


Dive into the research topics of 'Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this