Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus

Larry Miller, Pere Clavé, Ricard Farré, Begoña Lecea, Michael R. Ruggieri, Ann Ouyang, Julie Regan, Barry P. Mcmahon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-277
Number of pages17
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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