Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law

William E. Kovacic, Robert C. Marshall, Leslie M. Marx, Halbert L. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Plus factors are economic actions and outcomes, above and beyond parallel conduct by oligopolistic firms, that are largely inconsistent with unilateral conduct but largely consistent with explicitly coordinated action. Possible plus factors are typically enumerated without any attempt to distinguish them in terms of a meaningful economic categorization or in terms of their probative strength for inferring collusion. In this Article, we provide a taxonomy for plus factors as well as a methodology for ranking plus factors in terms of their strength for inferring explicit collusion, the strongest of which are referred to as "super plus factors".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-436
Number of pages44
JournalMichigan Law Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Law


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