Objective:To describe utilization and long-term outcomes of pneumonectomy in children and adolescents with cancer.Summary Background Data:Pneumonectomy in adults is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the indications and outcomes of pneumonectomy for pediatric tumors.Methods:The Pediatric Surgical Oncology Research Collaborative (PSORC) identified pediatric patients <21 years of age who underwent pneumonectomy from 1990 to 2017 for primary or metastatic tumors at 12 institutions. Clinical information was collected; outcomes included operative complications, long-term function, recurrence, and survival. Univariate log rank, and multivariable Cox analyses determined factors associated with survival.Results:Thirty-eight patients (mean 12 ± 6 yrs) were identified; median (IQR) follow-up was 19 (5-38) months. Twenty-six patients (68%) underwent pneumonectomy for primary tumors and 12 (32%) for metastases. The most frequent histologies were osteosarcoma (n = 6), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT; n = 6), and pleuropulmonary blastoma (n = 5). Median postoperative ventilator days were 0 (0-1), intensive care 2 (1-3), and hospital 8 (5-16). Early postoperative complications occurred in 10 patients including 1 death. Of 25 (66%) patients alive at 1 year, 15 reported return to preoperative pulmonary status. All IMT patients survived while all osteosarcoma patients died during follow-up. On multivariable analysis, metastatic indications were associated with nonsurvival (HR = 3.37, P = 0.045)Conclusion:This is the largest review of children who underwent pneumonectomy for cancer. There is decreased procedure-related morbidity and mortality than reported for adults. Survival is worse with preoperative metastatic disease, especially osteosarcoma.
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