Making use of defects modification to P(VDF-TrFE) via either high energy electron irradiation treatment or copolymerizing VDF-TrFE with a small amount of chlorinated monomer to form a random terpolymer, we demonstrate that high electromechanical responses can be realized in P(VDF-TrFE) based polymers. It will be shown that in the stretched and irradiated 68/32 mol% copolymer, a transverse strain of 4.5% and a transverse electromechanical coupling factor k31 of 0.65 can be induced under a field of 85 MV/m. In addition, the irradiated copolymer also exhibits a high elastic energy density, ∼1 J/cm3. For PVDF based terpolymers such as P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer (CFE: chlorofluoroethylene), an electrostrictive strain of more than 7% can be obtained. To elucidate the microstructure changes due to the defects modification in P(VDF-TrFE) based polymers, synchrotron X-ray measurement was carried out on the irradiated copolymers and the results show that, the irradiation converts the polar-phase into a non-polar phase. In addition, X-ray date show that the polar-phase can be induced, at the expense of the non-polar phase, by external fields, confirming that the field induced conformation change is responsible for the observed high electromechanical responses. Although the modified PVDF based polymer exhibits the highest room temperature dielectric constant (60 versus below 10), it is still far below those in the inorganic materials. Experimental results show that by using delocalized electrons in conjugated bonds an all-organic composite with a dielectric constant more than 400 can be achieved. As a result, a strain of near 2% with an elastic energy density higher than 0.1 J/cm3 can be induced under a low applied field of 13 V/μm. The strain is proportional to the applied field and the composite has an elastic modulus near 1 GPa.
|Number of pages
|IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
|Published - Apr 2004
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering