Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a brittle-bone disease whose hallmark is bone fragility. Since the disease is genetic, there is currently no available cure. Several pharmacological agents have been tried with not much success, except the recent use of bisphosphonates. Stem cells have been suggested as an alternative OI treatment, but many hurdles remain before this technology can be applied for treating patients with OI. This review summarizes what is known at present regarding the application of stem cells to treat OI using animal models, clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells to treat patients with OI and the knowledge gained from the clinical trials. Application of gene therapy in combination with stem cells is also discussed. The hurdles to be overcome to bring stem cells close to the clinic and future perspectives are discussed.
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