Prediction of human assessments of dairy odor utilizing a fast gas chromatograph and neural networks

Fangle Chang, Paul H. Heinemann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


A method based on hedonic tone was developed and applied to evaluate human assessments of odor emitted from dairy operations using a fast gas chromatograph and neural networks. A general pleasantness scale ranging from −11 (extremely unpleasant) to +11 (extremely pleasant) was used to collect human responses. The panelists were able to identify the difference between various samples, and gave individually consistent responses for the same sample. The measurements of a fast gas chromatograph, called the zNose, were trained using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the human assessments. Three ANNs, Levenberg-Marquardt Back-propagation Neural Network (LMBNN), Scaled Conjugate Gradient Back-propagation (CGBNN), and Resilient Back-propagation Neural Network (RPBNN), were applied to connect human assessments and instrument measurements. In separate validation, zNose-LMBNN model showed superiority in four criteria, Mean Square Error (MSE), Correlation Coefficient (R), probability within 10% range to target, and probability within 5% range to target. The optimal model outputs represented human response as high as 67% within the 10% range and 44% within the 5% range of the targets. In addition, the model outputs have a good linear relationship with the targets (R = 0.53).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-548
Number of pages8
JournalComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
StatePublished - Feb 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Horticulture


Dive into the research topics of 'Prediction of human assessments of dairy odor utilizing a fast gas chromatograph and neural networks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this