Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (PLTx) is the standard of care for treatment of liver failure in children. Unfortunately, there are few studies with substantial numbers of patients that identify outcomes predictors. The goal of this study was to determine factors that influence outcomes in a large, single-center cohort of PLTx. Study Design: This retrospective review between 1984 to 2006 included all recipients 18 years of age and younger undergoing PLTx. Multiorgan graft recipients were excluded (n = 48). Data sources included transplantation center database and hospital medical records. Outcomes measures were overall patient and graft survival. Demographic, laboratory, and perioperative variables were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was undertaken using log-rank test and Cox's proportional hazards model. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant at the multivariate level. Results: Eight hundred fifty-two PLTx were performed in 657 children; 55% were girls, 45% were Hispanic, and median age was 29.5 months. Biliary atresia and acute liver failure were the most common causes of liver disease. Fifty-two percent were hospitalized before PLTx. Graft types were whole (75%) and segmental (25%). Indications for re-PLTx (n = 195) included graft nonfunction (22%), immunologic (34%), and vascular complications (35%). Overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 85%, 81%, and 78% (patient), and 78%, 72%, and 67% (graft). Independent significant predictors of worse patient survival were renal function, pretransplantation ventilator dependence, and causes of liver disease. Independent significant predictors of worse graft survival were renal function and warm ischemia time. Conclusions: As one of the largest, single-center analyses of PLTx, this study enables accurate statistical analysis and demonstrates excellent longterm outcomes. Independent prognosticators of graft survival were renal function and warm ischemia time, and those for patient survival were renal function, mechanical ventilation, and causes of liver disease. These factors can aid in the medical decision making required for optimal use of scarce donor organs.
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