Preparation of Barium Titanate Films at 55°C by an Electrochemical Method

Priya Bendale, Sridhar Venigalla, John R. Ambrose, Ellis D. Verink, James Hansell Adair

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Work by previous investigators has shown that BaTiO3 films can be synthesized from solution over temperature ranges from 80°C to greater than 200°C. In the present work, electrically insulating crystalline films of BaTiO3 have been electrochemically deposited on titanium substrates at temperatures as low as 55°C. Auger spectroscopic analyses with depth profiling indicate that a titanium oxide layer whose thickness is governed by current density acts as a precursor to BaTiO3. Formation of BaTiO3 is found to be favored only in highly alkaline solutions. This is consistent with the phase stability reported for the Ba─Ti─CO2─H2O system at 25°C. Lower processing temperatures (55°C) favor the formation of thick, electrically resistive, and wellcrystallized BaTiO3 films, apparently due to increased oxygen solubility in the electrolyte solution. Films produced at 100°C are much thinner and are electrically conductive due to fissures and pores in their microstructure. Initial studies on the effect of current density indicate the formation of thinner and porous films with thicker titanium oxide intermediate layers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2619-2627
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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