Pressure-assisted fabrication of organic light emitting diodes with MoO3 hole-injection layer materials

J. Du, V. C. Anye, E. O. Vodah, T. Tong, M. G. Zebaze Kana, W. O. Soboyejo

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16 Scopus citations


In this study, pressures of ∼5 to ∼8 MPa were applied to organic light emitting diodes containing either evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) or spin-coated poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole-injection layers (HILs). The threshold voltages for both devices were reduced by about half, after the application of pressure. Furthermore, in an effort to understand the effects of pressure treatment, finite element simulations were used to study the evolution of surface contact between the HIL and emissive layer (EML) under pressure. The blister area due to interfacial impurities was also calculated. This was shown to reduce by about half, when the applied pressures were between ∼5 and 8 MPa. The finite element simulations used Young's modulus measurements of MoO3 that were measured using the nanoindentation technique. They also incorporated measurements of the adhesion energy between the HIL and EML (measured by force microscopy during atomic force microscopy). Within a fracture mechanics framework, the implications of the results are then discussed for the pressure-assisted fabrication of robust organic electronic devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number233703
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number23
StatePublished - Jun 21 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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