Prevalence and risk factor of cognitive impairment were different between urban and rural population: A community-based study

Hui Dong Tang, Yi Zhou, Xiang Gao, Liang Liang, Miao Miao Hou, Yuan Qiao, Jian Fang Ma, Sheng Di Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Background: China is facing a continuously rising numbers of people with cognitive impairment (CI). Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CI among elderly people living in rural and urban communities. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face survey of CI on 7,900 individuals aged 50 years or older meeting inclusion criteria in the Malu (rural community, n = 4,429) andWuliqiao (urban community, n = 3,471) communities of Shanghai. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate the cognitive function. Information on demographic features and potential risk factors for CI was collected during the interview. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors associated with CI. Results: Based on the education modified MMSE score, we identified 329 CI cases in rural community and 227 in urban community. The prevalence of CI was 7.43% in rural population and 6.54% in urban population (p = 0.13). In the urban population, risk of having CIwas associated with age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08), lack of physical activities (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.11-4.57), presence of diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04-3.07), and having three or more children (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.27-4.50). In contrast, factors associated with rural populations included female gender (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.08-3.82), age (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.08), exposure to pesticides (OR = 4.68; 95% CI: 1.27-17.21), history of encephalitis or meningitis (OR = 6.02; 95% CI: 1.92-18.85) and head trauma (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.10-3.24). Conclusions: Urban rural and populations showed different risk factors for CI, suggesting that different preventive strategies in these areas should be performed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-925
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 24 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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