Prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: Are certified athletic trainers an untapped resource?

Kaleb T. Bogale, Tamara K. Oser, Alexander Zettlemoyer, Jessica Parascando, Matthew L. Silvis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aims: To assess the knowledge of certified athletic trainers (ATs) on the presenting signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: We conducted a 31-question survey of secondary school ATs recruited from the National Athletic Training Association that established demographic information, knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of T1D, and previous personal or professional exposure to individuals with T1D. We report descriptive statistics and univariate analyses evaluating the characteristics associated with T1D knowledge. We then report a multivariable model incorporating age, gender, years of experience and education level with T1D knowledge as the dependent variable. Results: 128 participants (92f:34m) met inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The majority of participants correctly identified frequent thirst (96.1%, n = 123) and frequent urination (85.9%, n = 110) as common presenting signs and symptoms of T1D, while fewer participants identified weight gain (58.6%, n = 75) or joint pain (39.1%, n = 50) as incorrect presenting signs and symptoms of T1D. Participants with over ten years of experience or previous exposure to individuals with T1D had increased T1D knowledge. Participants with advanced education (Master's degree or Doctorate) had no statistically significant difference in T1D knowledge compared to those with a Bachelor's degree. The only factor that demonstrated a significant association with T1D knowledge on multivariable analysis was the female gender. Conclusions: Educational awareness campaigns of T1D symptoms to reduce the rate of DKA at diagnosis of T1D have never included ATs. This study illustrates the importance of targeting future educational interventions on newly trained ATs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00188
JournalEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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