Printability of 316 stainless steel

T. Mukherjee, T. DebRoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


A printability database can help in the selection of a printing process-alloy combination to reduce, and in some cases avoid, common defects in printed parts. The extensive testing of parts is not a viable option for determining printability because printing processes are inherently slow and expensive. Here we evaluate printability of stainless steel 316 by evaluating its susceptibilities to residual stresses, distortion, composition change and lack of fusion defects for laser (DED-L) and arc (DED-GMA) based directed energy deposition and laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) processes using well-tested mechanistic models. Among these three processes, DED-GMA makes printed parts of 316 stainless steels most susceptible to residual stresses and distortion. High depth of penetration during DED-GMA makes components least susceptible to lack of fusion defects. Loss of volatile alloying elements from the tiny pools in PBF-L makes deposits the most vulnerable to composition change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)412-419
Number of pages8
JournalScience and Technology of Welding and Joining
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 4 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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