Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale

Evgheni Strelcov, Yunseok Kim, Stephen Jesse, Ye Cao, Ilia N. Ivanov, Ivan I. Kravchenko, Chih Hung Wang, Yung Chun Teng, Long Qing Chen, Ying Hao Chu, Sergei V. Kalinin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


A scanning probe microscopy technique for probing local ionic dynamics in electrochemically active materials based on the first-order reversal curve current-voltage (FORC-IV) method is presented. FORC-IV imaging mode is applied to a Ca-substituted bismuth ferrite (Ca-BFO) system to separate the electronic and ionic phenomena in this material and visualize the spatial variability of these behaviors. The variable-temperature measurements further demonstrate the interplay between the thermally and electric-field-driven resistance changes in Ca-BFO. The FORC-IV is shown to be a simple, powerful, and flexible method for studying electrochemical activity of materials at the nanoscale and, in conjunction with the electrochemical strain microscopy, it can be used for differentiating ferroelectric and ionic behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3455-3462
Number of pages8
JournalNano letters
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 14 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Probing local ionic dynamics in functional oxides at the nanoscale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this