Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cerenkov Telescopes (MAGIC) detected the gamma-ray afterglow of GRB 190114C, which can constrain microscopic parameters of the shock-heated plasma emitting non-thermal emission. Focusing on the early afterglow of this event, we numerically simulate the spectrum and multi-wavelength light curves with constant and wind-like circumstellar medium using a time-dependent code. Our results show that the electron acceleration timescale at the highest energies is likely shorter than 20 times the gyroperiod to reproduce the GeV gamma-ray flux and its spectral index reported by Fermi. This gives an interesting constraint on the acceleration efficiency for Weibel-mediated shocks. We also constrain the number fraction of non-thermal electrons f e, and the temperature of the thermal electrons. The early optical emission can be explained by the thermal synchrotron emission with f e ≲ 0.01. On the other hand, the X-ray light curves restrict efficient energy transfer from protons to the thermal electrons, and f e ∼ 1 is required if the energy fraction of the thermal electrons is larger than ∼10%. The parameter constraints obtained in this work give important clues to probing plasma physics with relativistic shocks.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science