Probing the growth quality of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Bi2Se3 films via in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

Aofeng Bai, Maria Hilse, Prasanna D. Patil, Roman Engel-Herbet, Frank Peiris

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3 Scopus citations


Multilayer heterostructures of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and conventional semiconductor In2Se3, as well as solid solution layers of (Bi1-xInx)2Se3 layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and analyzed in-operando using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). SE spectra were obtained after the deposition of each layer to determine the respective dielectric functions and thicknesses of each layer. In contrast to ex-situ SE, where uncertainty in the dielectric function and thicknesses of individual layer impose limitations to extract a correct model for the dielectric function of such multilayer heterostructures from a single set of SE data, the step-by-step in-situ SE data recover more precise dielectric functions for Bi2Se3, In2Se3, (Bi0.7In 0.3)2Se3 and the cap-layer. The optical models developed for multilayer structures can decipher minute perturbations in layers as the growth progresses. Our models show that a ∼7 nm Bi2Se3 layer grown next to a sapphire substrate seems to disappear as the structure is annealed at 600 °C. Finally, when the dielectric functions were represented as a collection of Kramers-Kronig-consistent oscillators, in-situ SE predicted the quality of films; the weighted-average broadening parameter for oscillators used for Bi2Se3 films grown on (Bi0.7In 0.3)2Se3 layer is ∼20% smaller compared to Bi2Se3 films directly grown on sapphire, confirming that the former film is of better quality, and providing a direct metric to quantify film quality and defect concentration. These conclusions were corroborated by transport data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number126714
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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