Processes linking social class and racial socialization in African American dual-earner families

Ann C. Crouter, Megan E. Baril, Kelly D. Davis, Susan M. McHale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1311-1325
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Marriage and Family
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anthropology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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