Productivity Loss Among Opioid and Benzodiazepine Users in the United States

J. Douglas Thornton, Tyler Varisco, Prachet Bhatt, Olajumoke Olateju, Mina Shrestha, Chan Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the association between productivity losses and the use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines among employed US adults with painful conditions. Methods: Using Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2010-2019), we used two-part (logistic regression and generalized linear model with zero-truncated negative binomial link) model to compare missed workdays due to illness or injury among employed adults with a painful condition. Results: Of the eligible sample of 57, 413 working US individuals, 14.65% were prescription opioid users, 2.95% were benzodiazepine users, and 1.59% were both opioid and benzodiazepine users. The predicted missed workdays were 5.75 (95% Confidence Limit [CL]: 5.58-5.92) days for benzodiazepine users, 13.06 (95% CL: 12.88-13.23) days among opioid users, and 15.18 (95% CL: 14.46-15.90) days for opioid and benzodiazepine concomitant users. Conclusions: Concomitant use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines was significantly associated with having more missed workdays among employed adults with documented painful conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-233
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of occupational and environmental medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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