Prognostic Relevance of Treatment Failure Patterns in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Is There a Role for a Revised Failure Classification System?

John T. Lucas, David A. Cooper, Scott Hwang, Christopher Tinkle, Xingyu Li, Yimei Li, Brent Orr, Thomas E. Merchant, Alberto Broniscer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose We sought to investigate the pattern of treatment failure with respect to anatomic extent, radiation dose, and criteria for failure according to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO). We evaluated the corresponding prognostic significance of these factors in patients with pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG). Methods and Materials Fifty-six patients with pHGG were enrolled in an institutional phase 1 to 2 prospective trial that included maximal safe resection and radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant erlotinib. The radiation therapy dose administered was 54 to 59.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/d. Tumor progression was defined according to clinical symptoms and imaging features and was classified in relation to the original extent of the tumor, radiation prescription target volume coverage, and RANO criteria (RANOc). Results With a median follow-up period of 90 months (range, 70-124 months), progression occurred in 48 patients (85.7%) while 8 (14.3%) were without progression. Central failure represented 42.6% of the total cohort, while in-field, marginal, and distant failures occurred in 7.4%, 9.3%, and 22.2%, respectively. Patients with biopsy or subtotal resection had increased rates of central failure and represented 14.81% and 16.67% of the total cohort, respectively. Tumor progression was classified as local, local plus distant, or distant. Among patients with local failure as a component of failure, 5 were considered to have marginal failure. Patients with frontal, temporal, and parietal disease had the highest rates of multifocal failure. A comparison between responses defined by RANOc demonstrated varied time to death (TTD) from progression. Conclusions Pediatric high-grade glioma was shown to have high rates of central failure, particularly in cases with limited resection. Patients with central failure had a trend toward more prolonged TTD from failure relative to other failure patterns. The low marginal failure rates seen in this group suggest that less conservative radiation target margins may be possible. TTD from failure varied according to RANO type, suggesting that adult RANOc require modification before being applied to pHGG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)450-458
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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