Prospective relations between 2x2 achievement goals and the quality of sport training

David E. Conroy, Camille M. Cassidy, Andrew J. Elliot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Athletes will ideally plan their training to ensure physical readiness for their next training bout and competition; however, different self-regulatory strategies may lead to different behaviors during training (e.g., using mental training strategies vs. using alcohol). Drawing on a contextual perspective, this study investigated whether athletes' 2 X 2 achievement goals predicted the quality of their training over the following six weeks. Female track and field athletes (N = 71) rated their 2X2 achievement goals at the beginning of their indoor season, completed bi-weekly behavior surveys, and maintained daily diaries for six weeks. Pre-season mastery-approach achievement goals predicted consistently beneficial training processes, whereas performance-based goals were unrelated to training processes. Mastery-avoidance goals were positively associated with daily sport-related distress, whereas mastery-approach goals were negatively associated with daily sport-related distress. These findings suggest that defining competence in mastery-based terms is generally valuable for sport training provided that those goals are oriented toward the positive possibility of competence and not away from the aversive possibility of incompetence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-134
Number of pages26
JournalRevue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology


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