Pushing and pulling carts and two-wheeled hand trucks

Myung Chul Jung, Joel M. Haight, Andris Freivalds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


As a simple solution to alleviate problems associated with manual material handling, manual vehicles, such as carts, trucks, wheelbarrows, etc., are often provided to operators. This review was initiated by concern for the effects of design, task, environment, and operator factors on the usability of manual vehicles. The previous studies are summarized and then ergonomic recommendations are made for each factor. Most studies have been performed on four-wheeled carts and focused on wheel design, handle height, load weight, moving direction, motion phase, and floor type. Biomechanics, psychophysics, and work physiology have been used to help understand usability. For future research, the systematic classification of manual vehicles is necessary to make specific ergonomic recommendations for special-purpose manual vehicles. Workers use manual vehicles to reduce physical stresses during manual material handling without the awareness of their factor effects on usability. This review paper would be useful for a manufacturer and ergonomist to design and select general manual vehicles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-89
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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