Pushing the Limits of Direct Spectra and Composition Measurements

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The recent years saw the implementation and deployment of a new generation of instruments flown in space or on stratospheric balloons. They are targeted at the study of a variety of energetic cosmic particles, including protons and nuclei, electrons, antimatter particles (positrons and antiprotons), secondary nuclei (including isotopes), ultraheavy nuclei, all complementing gamma-ray studies. Thus a new wealth of data is providing fresh insights on high-energy phenomena in the Galaxy. The instruments are large and deployed for long exposures, providing for an energy reach that permits direct cross-comparisons with ground-based measurements. We briefly review the state of the field, focusing on present and near future efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)716-725
Number of pages10
JournalPhysics of Atomic Nuclei
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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