Qualification of 3-D Printed Mortar with Electrical Conductivity Measurements

Alexander Heifetz, Dmitry Shribak, Sasan Bakhtiari, Igor S. Aranson, Anthony F. Bentivegna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3-D printing of concrete allows for construction of arbitrary shape structures without a mold. Since reproducibility of 3-D printed concrete is lower than that of conventional fabrication, each 3-D printed structure should be monitored for proper curing. Conventional qualification of concrete is based on several tests, including destructive compressive strength measurements. Because a structure is 3-D printed layer-by-layer, the surfaces of AM concrete structures have significant surface roughness. This limits the applicability of conventional nondestructive testing methods. We investigated qualification of 3-D printed mortar by monitoring curing with nondestructive electrical conductivity measurements. Bulk resistance of concrete was extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements made using custom flexible self-adhesive electrodes, which contour to rough surfaces. We show that bulk resistivity of concrete increases linearly with time. This allows for developing a calibration curve for compressive strength lookup from nondestructive electrical conductivity measurements. Conductivity measurements also allow for estimation of formation factor, which is an indicator of mortar permeability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9381728
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
StatePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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