Racial and Socioeconomic Differences and Surgical Outcomes in Pancreaticoduodenectomy Patients: A Systematic Review of High- Versus Low-Volume Hospitals in the United States

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is associated with better outcomes in high-volume hospitals. However, it is unknown whether and to what extent the improved performance of high-volume hospitals may be associated with racial and socioeconomic factors, which have been shown to impact operative and postoperative outcomes in major surgeries. This review aims to identify the differences in racial and socioeconomic characteristics of patients who underwent PD surgery in high- and low-volume hospitals. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science were systematically searched between May 1, 2023 and May 7, 2023 without any time restriction on publication date. Studies that were conducted in the United States and had a direct comparison between high- and low-volume hospitals were included. Results: A total of 30 observational studies were included. When racial proportions were compared by hospital volume, thirteen studies reported that compared to high-volume hospitals, a higher percentage of racial minorities underwent PD in low-volume hospitals. Disparities in traveling distance, education levels, and median income at baseline between high- and low-volume hospitals were reported by four, three, and two studies, respectively. Conclusion: A racial difference at baseline between high- and low-volume hospitals was observed. Socioeconomic factors were less frequently included in existing literature. Future studies are needed to understand the socioeconomic differences between patients receiving PD surgery in high- and low-volume hospitals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-302
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Surgeon
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery

Cite this