Rates of missing responses in Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) versus paper assessments

Lori Ann Palen, John W. Graham, Edward A. Smith, Linda L. Caldwell, Catherine Mathews, Alan J. Flisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


This article describes rates of missing item responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) assessments as compared to paper assessments. Data come from the evaluation of a classroom-based leisure, life skills, and sexuality education program delivered to high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses show that the paper assessments had much higher rates of missing-ness than PDA assessments. This association is moderated by item order. Certain analyses also suggest that paper assessments have higher rates of missingness for items pertaining to participants' sexual behavior. Implications of these results for evaluation research will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-272
Number of pages16
JournalEvaluation Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Social Sciences


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