Reaction mechanism of calcium-catalyzed thermal regeneration of spent granular activated carbon

Fred S. Cannon, Vernon L. Snoeyink, Ramon G. Lee, Gerard Dagois

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Thermal regenerations were conducted on a spent granular activated carbon (GAC) that had served in a water treatment plant for about four years and contained 1.8% calcium. Oxidation was conducted in steam, CO2, or steam plus CO2, at 650-950°C. As described earlier, when steam and CO2 were employed together, the regenerated product's pore structure maintained greater micropore volume at high temperatures ( > 800°C) than at low temperatures (<750°C). The work herein has linked this distinction to differences in reaction rate limitations: at high temperatures, with both oxidants employed together, the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO = H2 + CO2) limited overall rate, whereas at low temperatures, the C(O) gasification step limited overall rate. The CO2 created via the water gas shift reaction served as the primary oxidant. Although steam served only as a secondary oxidant, its presence also facilitated more extensive oxidant transfer to the carbon surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1285-1301
Number of pages17
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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