Reactive extrusion additive manufacturing (REAM) of functionally graded, magneto-active thermoset composites

Oliver Uitz, Rui Leng, Tan Pan, Xiaoyue Zhao, Ademola Oridate, Carolyn Seepersad, Zoubeida Ounaies, Mary Frecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Reactive extrusion additive manufacturing (REAM) is a process in which a motion-controlled nozzle mixes and immediately deposits a multi-part thermoset resin to create layered parts that cure rapidly in the ambient environment. By mixing particle-filled and neat resins on demand, it is possible to functionally grade both the material structure and the resulting properties of the parts. This research investigates a two-part shape memory polymer in which an epoxy resin is combined with a curing agent to yield a thermoset polymer part with structural integrity and shape memory properties. Magneto-active iron oxide particles are added to the epoxy resin to create a filled resin that is mixed on demand with neat epoxy resin and curing agent; control over the mixing and deposition results in a customized distribution of iron oxide content spatially within a part. After characterizing the shape memory properties of the matrix epoxy, the magneto-active composites are shape programmed and actuated via the application of thermal and magnetic fields, respectively, and the effect of the functional grading on the magneto-active properties of the shape memory polymer is demonstrated. Analytical models are derived to predict the magnetic field-responsive behavior of the thermoset composites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103486
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
StatePublished - Apr 5 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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