Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

S. S. Harilal, J. P. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. R. Hendricks, M. Nieto-Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8539-8543
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Surface Science
Issue number20
StatePublished - Jul 30 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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