This study investigated mean differences in real-world executive functioning (real-world-EF) for those with and without the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP), correlations between real-world-EF and BAP traits, and real-world-EF predictors of BAP traits. Also examined was a sub-sample of parents of children with autism (n = 42) vs. parents of children with other developmental disabilities (n = 36). The BAP group (n = 28) had higher scores, and more people with clinically significant scores (t-scores ≥ 65), than the Non-BAP group (n = 118) on all Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult (BRIEF-A) scales except Organization of Materials and Inhibition. When compared with parents of children with various non-autism developmental disabilities, parents of children with autism had similar means and proportions of people with clinically significant scores on all BRIEF-A scales. Inhibition, Shift, Working Memory, and Plan/Organize were correlated with Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) scores. Pragmatic Language demonstrated consistent higher correlations with the most real-world-EF scales. Regressions revealed Shift as a significant predictor for all BAPQ scores. Findings underscore the importance of individual BAP-trait evaluation, investigation of the practical significance of mean differences, the pervasiveness of Shift weaknesses in the BAP, and the possibility for interventions based on intact areas of functioning.
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