Recent Advances of Energy Solutions for Implantable Bioelectronics

Hongwei Sheng, Xuetao Zhang, Jie Liang, Mingjiao Shao, Erqing Xie, Cunjiang Yu, Wei Lan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The emerging field of implantable bioelectronics has attracted widespread attention in modern society because it can improve treatment outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and lead to an improvement in the quality of life. However, their continuous operation is often limited by conventional bulky and rigid batteries with a limited lifespan, which must be surgically removed after completing their missions and/or replaced after being exhausted. Herein, this paper gives a comprehensive review of recent advances in nonconventional energy solutions for implantable bioelectronics, emphasizing the miniaturized, flexible, biocompatible, and biodegradable power devices. According to their source of energy, the promising alternative energy solutions are sorted into three main categories, including energy storage devices (batteries and supercapacitors), internal energy-harvesting devices (including biofuel cells, piezoelectric/triboelectric energy harvesters, thermoelectric and biopotential power generators), and external wireless power transmission technologies (including inductive coupling/radiofrequency, ultrasound-induced, and photovoltaic devices). Their fundamentals, materials strategies, structural design, output performances, animal experiments, and typical biomedical applications are also discussed. It is expected to offer complementary power sources to extend the battery lifetime of bioelectronics while acting as an independent power supply. Thereafter, the existing challenges and perspectives associated with these powering devices are also outlined, with a focus on implantable bioelectronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2100199
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 8 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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