Reciprocal links between marijuana use and school adjustment in Black and White rural adolescents

Emily M. May, Dawn P. Witherspoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although research has established that school adjustment is associated with marijuana use (MU) in adolescence, few studies have tested these associations bidirectionally. Using random intercepts cross-lagged panel modeling, this study examined reciprocal associations between MU and school adjustment across 8th to 10th grade, including the transition to high school. Participants included 5470 rural adolescents (59% White, 41% Black) aged 12–17 years in 2002–2005. School adjustment factors predicted subsequent MU (i.e., higher self-reported grades were protective for Black and White youth; valuing education was protective for Black youth; school behavior problems predicted increased MU across the transition to high school for White youth). MU had several adverse effects on school adjustment, particularly during the transition to high school.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1819-1836
Number of pages18
JournalChild development
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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