Reciprocity and change within the affective family environment in early adolescence

Mark Stemmler, Anne C. Petersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This study examined: (1) the extent and change of affective relationships between young adolescents and their parents over a two-year period; and (2) the amount of reciprocity or concordance of family feelings. Relationship patterns were examined longitudinally from the child's sixth to eighth grade in school (Petersen, 1984). Mothers, fathers, and adolescents completed the Lowman Inventory of Family Feelings (LIFF; Lowman, 1974, 1980). The results are based on a longitudinal sample of 54 complete triads and between 128 and 284 dyads depending on measurement point and informant. Family feelings were positive overall, but declined by eighth grade. Here, no differences in results depending on the gender of the adolescent or the parent were detected. Nonreciprocity of family feelings was only present in sixth grade but not in eighth grade. At sixth grade, boys especially, shared less positive family feelings. Results indicate the importance of studying the quality and change of parent-offspring relationships across adolescence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-198
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


Dive into the research topics of 'Reciprocity and change within the affective family environment in early adolescence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this