Reclamation of intermetallic titanium aluminide aero-engine components using directed energy deposition technology

Balichakra Mallikarjuna, Edward W. Reutzel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Titanium Aluminide (TiAl) alloys are intermetallics that offer low density, high melting point, good oxidation and corrosion resistance compared to Ni-based superalloys. As a result, these alloys are used in aero-engine parts such as turbine blades, fuel injectors, radial diffusers, divergent flaps, and more. During operation, aero-engine components are subjected to high thermal loading in an oxidizing and corrosive environment, which results in wear and other material damage. Replacement of the entire component may not be desirable due to long lead time and expense. In such cases, repair and refurbishing may be the best option for the reclamation of TiAl parts. Unfortunately, approved repair technology is not currently available for TiAl based components. Additive Manufacturing (AM) based Directed Energy Deposition (DED) may serve as an option to help repair and restore expensive aero-engine parts. In this work, a review of efforts to utilize the DED technique to repair damaged TiAl-based aerospace parts locally is conducted. Replacing the entire TiAl part is not advisable as it is expensive. DED is a promising technique used to produce, repair, rework, and overhaul (MRO) damaged parts. Considering the high-quality standard of the aircraft industry, DED repaired TiAl parts to be certified for their future use in the aircraft is very important. However, there are no standards for the certification of TiAl repaired parts is reported. Case studies reveal that DED is under consideration for repair of TiAl parts. Hybrid technology comprising machining, repair and finishing capability in a single machine is an attractive implementation strategy to improve repair efficacies. The review shows that the investigations into development and applications of DED-based repairing techniques are limited, which suggests that further investigations are very much needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number27
JournalManufacturing Review
StatePublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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