Rectangular cymbal arrays for improved ultrasonic transdermal insulin delivery

Joseph Luis, Eun Joo Park, Richard J. Meyer, Nadine Barrie Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Circular cymbal ultrasound arrays have been shown to be effective in delivering therapeutic levels of insulin in rats, rabbits, and pigs. To improve delivery efficiency, a rectangular cymbal design was desired in order to achieve a broader spatial intensity field without increasing the size of the device or the spatial-peak temporal-peak intensity (ISPTP). With a similar intensity (50 mW cm2), the goal was to determine if the 3x1 rectangular cymbal array could perform significantly better than the 3x3 circular array for glucose reduction in hyperglycemic rabbits. Rabbit experiments were performed using three groups: nonsonicated control (n=3), ultrasound exposure using a circular cymbal array (n=3), and ultrasound exposure using a rectangular cymbal array (n=3). Rabbits were anesthetized and a water tight reservoir that held the insulin was fastened on the rabbit's thigh. At the beginning of the experiment and every 15 min for 90 min, the blood glucose level was determined. For comparison between individual rabbits, the absolute level is normalized by subtracting out the baseline in order to arrive at the change in glucose level. For the control group, the normalized glucose level increased (more hyperglycemic) to +80.0±28.8 mgdl (mean±SEM). Using the circular array, the glucose level decreased to -146.7±17.8 mgdl at 90 min. However, using the rectangular cymbal array, the glucose decreased faster and to a level of -200.8±5.9 mgdl after 90 min. These results indicated the feasibility of the rectangular cymbal array as an improved device for drug delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2022-2030
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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