Testing for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) can provide fundamental information about genetic variation and evolutionary processes in natural populations. In contrast to diploids, where genotype frequencies remain constant after a single episode of random mating, polyploids, characterized by polysomic inheritance, approach HWE gradually. Here, we mathematically show the asymptotic trajectory of tetraploid equilibrium from any initial genotype frequencies. We formulate a statistical framework to test and estimate the degree of deviation from HWE at individual loci in allotetraploids and autotetraploids. Knowledge about HWE test fills an important gap in population genetic studies of tetraploids related to their evolution and ecology.
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